Loss of soil from land owing to the personal property of water and wind currents is called soil erosion. It is a natural process that transports soil from one location to another. In natural conditions, this progression takes place in a slow and continuing manner. Due to human being impact the rate of soil erosion is considerably accelerated. Some of the issues that speed up the process of soil erosion are deforestation, over grazing and improper or in excess amount of farming practices.
When soil erosion happens very slowly but surely it has negligible effect on the land as an adequate amount of time is on hand for to substitute with new soil. But accelerated erosion leads to unfavorable special effects and decreases soil fertility as it diminishes the amount of nutrients. Decrease in soil fertility due to wearing away leads to decrease in the output of crop and also excellence of crops grown.
Eroding land can show the way to accidents and when soil that shifts and gets accumulated on roads and streets can block the driving. These effects are common in sloppy and mountain regions. Soil erosion can reason great damage to environment as greater than before loss of soil can have an effect on the growth of natural vegetation and in turn this leads to transfer of fertile land into a desert.
Soil erosion leads to confirmation of remains by water currents in water bodies like ponds, which can hurt marine plant and animal life. The soil sediments can cover up fish eggs present in ponds and prevent their hatching. Due to erosion soil particles stay on the edge in water and prevent light from reaching marine plants and have an effect on the process of photosynthesis. Due to gigantic amount of suspended soil particles in water it retains the heat and raises the water temperature, which affects the living organisms.
Another major shock from the agricultural chemicals that often move with worn residue is that these chemicals move into, and pollute, downstream watercourses and water bodies. Where inputs of agricultural chemicals are high – as in the more wealthy nations – costs of removing such pollutants from drinking water can be extensive.
The harmful effects of erosion, in terms of decreased agricultural yields, are well known in the developing countries. In erosion-prone areas of the more well-off countries, productivity may be maintained in the short to medium term by increased fertilizer input. The effects of erosion are thus rarely recognized by farmers in richer countries. This approach is however infeasible with regard to erosion in developing countries.